The head of a flower is made up of small seeds which are produced at the center, and then migrate towards the outside to fill eventually all the space (as for the sunflower but on a much smaller level). Each new seed appears at a certain angle in relation to the preceeding one. For example, if the angle is 90 degrees, that is 1/4 of a turn.…This angle has to be chosen very precisely: variations of 1/10 of a degree destroy completely the optimization. When the angle is exactly the golden mean, and only this one, two families of spirals (one in each direction) are then visible: their numbers correspond to the numerator and denominator of 2 consecutive numbers in the Fibonacci sequence, which is proved to converge toward the Golden Mean value of 1.6180339… (in the picture we have 21/34, the 7th and 8th terms of the Fibonacci sequence).The Fibonacci sequence is named after Leonardo of Pisa, who was known as Fibonacci. Fibonacci’s 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced the sequence to Western European mathematics, although the sequence had been described earlier in Indian mathematics. (By modern convention, the sequence begins either with F0 = 0 or with F1 = 1. The Liber Abaci began the sequence with F1 = 1, without an initial 0.)
The Santa Barbara Coastal (SBC) Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Project, located in the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight, investigates the importance of land and ocean processes in structuring giant kelp forest ecosystems. Although there is increasing concern about the impacts of human activities on coastal watersheds and nearshore marine environments, there have been few long-term studies of linkages among terrestrial, estuarine, nearshore and oceanic habitats. The SBC LTER is filling this gap.
“Acrobats of God” was a show conceived by Martha Graham, in which “she mocks herself, modern dance, ballet and more.” From May 5, 1960 — Ms. Graham and Company left New York to appear at the Edinburgh Festival in Scotland, then to London. Ms. Graham, David Wood and their colleagues were pictured.Photo: Sam Falk/The New York Times